Learn This: Auto-Blocking Munter

Add one extra biner to a Munter hitch for guide mode

Every climber should be familiar with the Munter, a simple but versatile hitch that has many helpful uses. We all know it’s a great replacement if you accidentally drop or forget your belay device, but it’s especially handy in alpine and ski mountaineering environments because it handles a frozen and icy rope better than traditional belay devices. As a matter of fact, the Munter can actually de-ice your rope and make it easier to handle in particularly cold climates. With one simple modification, this hitch can also become an auto-blocking belay system (commonly called “guide mode”) when belaying a follower directly off the anchor from the top of a pitch. This is a great trick for guides and recreational leaders alike since it requires little gear and can be set up quickly and easily.


Build your anchor like you normally would, with a pear-shaped locking biner (it’s possible to use biners with other shapes, but a pear will allow the rope to run as smoothly as possible) through the master point. (Make sure to lock the biner!) The Munter hitch should be in raise mode, so the hitch itself is flipped over the carabiner on the other side from the climber’s rope. (The Munter is a bi-directional hitch, so it is supposed to flip from one side to the other as you switch from raising to lowering.) Clip your second locking biner onto the load line (or climber’s rope) and the bight in the hitch closest to the climber’s rope. By including this biner in the system, the Munter hitch will not be able to flip into lower mode, therefore making it auto-blocking.

Test it by pulling on the load strand of the rope. If set up correctly, the hitch will lock on itself. Then pull on the brake strand to make sure the rope runs through smoothly. You can also use this system for belaying two followers: Put each follower’s rope on its own biner on the master point, and then use two more biners to set up auto-block mode.


Just like with any auto-blocking tube-style device, giving slack to your follower can be difficult. The easiest way to do this is to have your climber simply unweight the rope at a good stance. This is one reason why this technique is ideal for easy fifth-class terrain; the climber is moving at a pace where the belayer can manage the rope and easily go hands-free. This allows the belayer to multitask and prepare for the next pitch while the climber is safely moving up. If applied correctly in the right terrain, it all allows for quick and smooth transitions.


What are some tips for a person who is rappelling for the first time? 


1. Always double-check the anchors that you are rappelling off, especially if you did not build them. They should be solid and redundant; plus, look at the whole length of webbing to make sure it’s not faded or torn.

2. Your hair and clothing should not be close enough to get caught in your belay device.

3. Take your time. Have your partner double-check your setup (both ropes through rappel device, biner clipped to device, ropes, and belay loop, and biner locked) before you go.

4. Weight your belay device and check your whole setup again before you remove your personal tether from the anchor.

5. Use a rappel backup—either a prusik or an auto-block—in case there is unexpected rockfall or you need to remove your hand to deal with tangles in the rope.


As a guide for RMI and Pacific Alpine Guides, Lindsay Mann leads mountaineering trips on Mt. Rainier, Denali, and throughout the North Cascades. She also teaches avalanche courses and works as a backcountry ski guide.


Previous Comments

For repelling in your emergency you can fix the annoying twisted mess by using a double munter witch will twist the rope back a have no twists! But this will double the friction. Mainly used for mountain rescue bit not difficult and way less a pain than messing with your rope afterwards.

Travis - 09/02/2014 7:25:19

I've used the Munter/Italian hitch on/off for 30+ years. It's an excellent (safe) hitch requiring no additional gear/devices (there's always locking pear-biners about). It can also be used with regular 'biners in a pinch. It's also, as previously said, excellent on snowy/icy ropes when used with a pear-biner. However.....(there's always a "however") it's very hard on the rope if used to lower/rappel. It's excellent for emergencies/etc. where the rope only needs to get you down. But for constant use your rope will become a twisted unruly mess. I don't think this compromises the strength of the rope but rope epics will ensue if the Munter is used regularly to lower/rappel.

Dan - 04/26/2014 1:02:35

Hey, what about tying knots at the ends of your rappel rope? Don't rap off the ends -- a lot of people get hurt/die that way!

Jeff Morrison - 04/24/2014 1:38:17

It's good trick while follower is climbing and in case of falling they can restart climbing, but if the follower can't restart climbing is not a way to unlock munter. In this explanation is missing the connection of the carabiner that is making the auto-lock to a daisy or directly to harness, this with the objetive of give rope to follower or/and unlock the munter. Other disadvantage of this system and the munter in general is that curl the rope. In México we use this system since 10 year ago.

Esteban - 04/20/2014 10:20:38

Is it possible to use it instead of ropeman when simul climbing?

Paul - 04/20/2014 3:29:31

Good to know if you don't have your autoblocking belay device. Make sure you do it correctly and be prepared for a workout because there is a lot more friction than with the munter.

Bob - 04/19/2014 5:28:07

Great info, yhanks

Rinjani Lombok - 04/18/2014 7:43:24