Solo Toproping: Basic Self-Belay Techniques

When Tommy Caldwell or Mayan Smith-Gobat work a free climb high on El Capitan, the crux may be finding a belayer willing to put in days of duty in an isolated and exposed location. Often, the solution is to go alone, rehearsing the key pitches by solo toproping. Whether you’re an active first ascensionist or just want to do some laps after work without a partner, solo toproping is a handy technique to add to your repertoire.

Though there are several methods, all share a couple of aspects: Before ascending, the climber fixes one or two ropes to an anchor above the pitch, and then climbs self-belayed by ascenders or progress-capture pulleys clipped to the rope or ropes. (A progress-capture pulley is usually used for hauling a load—it allows the rope to roll smoothly in one direction but stops the rope if it’s pulled in the other direction.)

Solo-toproping techniques vary mainly in their back-up methods. And you must be backed up—never depend on a single device. Some climbers hang a second rope alongside the first and clip into bights pre-tied in the backup rope in case the primary rope or belay device fails. Others climb with two different devices clipped into two separate ropes. (This is the method recommended by Petzl, which makes the most popular devices used for this technique.*) Top climbers such as Caldwell, Steph Davis, and Matt Samet prefer the method described here: two devices on a single static rope.

Illustration by Supercorn

Illustration by Supercorn

Here’s how to do it:

Anchor the rope.

For simplicity’s sake, we’ll assume you’re toproping a single-pitch climb. Ideally, your rope should be clipped to a solid anchor below the top of the cliff, so the rope does not rub over any edges. If you’re setting up the toprope from above, build a backup anchor above the cliff, and then set your primary anchor below the lip.

In this method, a static rope is safest and easiest to use. Safest because it won’t bounce much under load; this reduces dangerous wear. Easiest because the devices will track well along a static rope as you move. Climbers experienced with this method recommend a 10mm or thicker static rope for security and rope longevity. Note: If you’re using a second rope as a backup, this second rope must be dynamic, in order to absorb the shock you’ll generate if your primary system fails.

After returning to the bottom of the climb, coil the extra rope and let it hang above the ground, or clip a water bottle or other weight at the bottom of the rope—this will add a little tension, helping your self-belay system slide smoothly up the rope at the start of the pitch.

Set up your self-belay.

Although many different ascenders and progress-capture pulleys can be used, most climbers using this method prefer the Petzl Mini Traxion or Petzl Microcender, or a combination of the two. Petzl recommends always using two different devices to maximize the benefit of the backup.

Following the manufacturer’s instructions, attach the two devices to the rope, one above the other. Make sure the devices’ cams are properly locked onto the rope—inattention at this step is the most common cause of self-belay failure.

Clip both devices to your belay loop. You must use either oval locking carabiners or anti-cross-loading locking biners.

The top device is your primary self-belay. To keep it in the ideal position for braking (and separate it from the other device), connect the top device to a chest harness, a pair of slings draped over each shoulder so they cross in the middle, or a single sling. (Caldwell drapes a headlamp strap around his neck and clips this to his device.) Unlike a true chest harness, this system is not load bearing, but simply holds the device in position. Use a bit of webbing or an adjustable strap to connect this system to the top ascender, using the same clip-in hole as the locking biner on the device. Make sure that no cords or straps from your clothing or pack can interfere with your self-belay devices.


Before starting up the pitch, test both devices to make sure they will lock properly under weight. Gently bounce-test the system in a safe position at the base, and make sure the devices don’t interfere with each other. If the bottom device bumps into the top device, extend the top device with a quickdraw, using locking carabiners on each end of the draw. If you do this, make sure your chest harness is still comfortable and keeps the top device positioned upright on the rope.

You may need to push the devices along at the start of the pitch, but soon the two should slide up the rope as you climb. If you have clipped intermediate anchors or protection points along the route (on an overhanging climb, for example), never climb above these pieces
without unclipping the rope from them first.

Escape the system.

There are at least two situations where you will need to escape from your self-belay system. At the top of the pitch, you’ll need to unclip from the devices in order to descend. Less commonly, you may need to escape from the system if you can’t do a move or otherwise run into trouble.

When you reach the top of the climb, use slings or personal tethers to clip into the anchor. Be careful not to climb so high that your self-belay system bumps into the anchor—this will make it difficult to unweight the devices and escape from the system. It may help to clip long slings to the anchor before you climb, and then clip into these slings when you reach the top, so you are hanging well below the anchor.

Once you are securely anchored, remove both devices from the now-unweighted static rope. Attach your rappel device to the rope, and rappel to the base of the climb. If you must climb past the primary anchor to retrieve your backup anchor, first clean the primary anchor and pull any slack in the rope above you through the ascenders, before you start climbing again. Note: Never climb on a slack static rope using the toprope self-belay system. A fall onto a slack static rope could injure you (even fatally) or cause the system to fail.

You also need a way to get up or down if you can’t do a move. This means you’ll need to unweight the self-belay devices mid-pitch, and then either rappel or ascend the rope. To prepare for this, always carry some extra gear on your harness: an assisted-braking belay/rappel device (Grigri, Cinch, etc.), a backup ascender such as a Petzl Tibloc or Wild Country Ropeman, and a double-length sling to use as a foot loop for ascending the rope or unweighting the devices at your waist. The various techniques for escaping the system using these devices are beyond the scope of this article, but whichever method you use, practice while you’re still on the ground.

Final note.

Stay alert whenever you reattach your self-belay system—when you’re ready to do another lap on a route, for example. This is where most mistakes happen. You must be sure the cams on each ascender are properly engaging the rope before climbing or weighting the system again.

*Petzl has published an extensive analysis of self-belay toproping, including its recommended method and various alternatives. Google “Petzl self belay.”


A semi-static rope could be a compromise solution to the dynamic rope vs. static rope controversy. Sterling's SafetyPro and SuperStatic ropes are possible candidates. Another consideration is one's choice of primary self-belay device. I like the Petzl Microcender. When this toothless wonder is loaded in a fall, it will begin to slip at a force of about 3kN on a 9mm rope, and 4kN on a larger rope. This initial slippage can help soften the catch. So will keeping the Microcender as high as possible on the belay loop using an improvised chest harness. Doing so will improve its ability to self-feed, as well as eliminate a source of slack in the system.

Mickster - 01/03/2015 11:24:55

I have done some TR soloing, mostly with dynamik ropes and the shunt. But im also working in rope access wher we at all times have 2 points off safty. We always use static ropes, 10.5 or 11. A few years ago, the shunt was the standard device as a backupp but its now not aproved anymore due to the fact that it brakes if it cant slide (knot under it). Ther are a few other devises without teets now that i wold use.. i have a Goblin (camp) that i will try, but im curius to try the Buddy (dmm) or the Duck (s-tec). Bot the goblin and duck will stop a 200kg load in fall factor 2, but the Buddy is only aproved for 1 person load.

Niklas Svensson - 12/15/2014 1:49:22

Didn't Max Turgeon just use a Reverso to lead rope solo all across Italy... Climbing is for freedom not for following rules. If you want to use static keep it tight, if you want to use dynamic keep it loose. But just accept that we all choose our own danger levels.

ThatGuy - 08/11/2014 8:31:02

Some commenters have questioned our recommendation of a static rope over a dynamic rope, as recommended on Petzl's website. Petzl's recommended method is quite different from the one we recommend. Their primary method uses two ropes, with separate devices on each rope. But even their secondary single-rope method seems to recommend a dynamic rope.

Basically, Petzl is recommending a dynamic rope because it adds more give/stretch in the system, in case one ascender comes unclipped or fails, or for some other reason the system is shock-loaded. The downside of this approach is that a dynamic rope is susceptible to rubbing or abrading as the climber moves along it, especially when he's weighting the rope. (This, in fact, is why Petzl recommends two ropes.) As a result, many top climbers use a single static rope, because it stretches very little and thus won't bounce and abrade. The ascenders also slide along it more easily.

Each system has trade-offs, but we chose to depict the one that many people have used effectively on thousands of pitches. We do address the static vs dynamic issue several times in the article. We acknowledge the hazards, but the key point is that many, many people use static ropes safely, as long as they take great care not to shock-load the rope. We asked several about this, and they said they preferred to minimize the risk of rope abrasion and cutting vs. minimizing the risk of shock-loading.

Static vs. dynamic boils down to a personal preference, rather than an out-and-out must-do or must-not.


Climbing Staff - 03/27/2014 3:02:59

I use a static rope to climb on and a dynamic for a backup. I'm not to concerned with the static ropes as I'm keeping the taught with no slack. If I was tops rope leading or had more slack in the systemthat would be a different situation.

barry ohm - 03/27/2014 1:16:56

Petzel says: do not use tiblc as one of the ascenders. Personally, i think it would be really hard on the sheath. I like the idea of using the microcender and petzl shunt, since there are no teeth in the friction block, but petzel says that the shunt in not appropriate. I use the petzl protraction rather than the microtraction, even though it is much heavier, but the protraction has tie in points at the top and bottom. So if i fall, i fall on the microcender, backed up by the shunt, backed up by the protraction backed up by a stopper knot. For top-rope solo or solo lead climbing, I always have a stopper knot tied somewhere as a fail safe.

michael mills - 02/01/2014 4:10:38

I just looked at the Petzl web site for use of two ascenders on a single rope and even they are recommending a dynamic or "semistatic" rope of 10mm or greater. You guys need to fix this.

Patrick - 01/29/2014 5:22:40

I agree with Tom here. I use a TR Solo set up to work routes I'm putting up and cleaning. I would very much hesitate to use a Static Rope because even small falls on the static would create a pretty significant load on the belay loop and other gear. As you climb, there is always some slack either from the rope not feeding through completely or from the ascenders/traxion sitting at the bottom or middle of your belay loop. I've never had a fall of less than 1' without having already pulled all slack out of the system. For this reason I tend to use workhorse 10.5 or 10.2mm dynamic ropes. As with any system you have to pay close attention to ledges, etc.

Patrick - 01/29/2014 5:17:40

I think one of the concerns, and maybe why they recommend a static rope vs. dynamic, is because of the possibly of severing the rope, depending upon the terrain. If it is a dynamic rope and runs over any edges and it is weighted and unweighted this results in rope stretch, or if there are swings taken because of a wandering route path, an edge could cut the climbing rope due to a sawing action. Static rope sheaths are usually more resistant to that. If the anchor is actually placed over the edge as they recommend with secondary gear keeping it in place, that will help eliminate potential issues. However, depending upon the route, the climbing rope still could be subject to sharp edges. Having said that I've always used a dynamic rope. As in all things, each situation is slightly different so wisdom needs to be used in setting up the TR. It's definitely not something that should be done by a novice. Another reason for using a static rope could be that most are stiffer than dynamic ropes and might feed more easily though the devices. However, I won't weigh in on that since I don't have any experience solo TRing with a static.

Naitch - 01/29/2014 10:13:55

Make the top device a Trango Cinch and it works even better as you need not "escape". When you take/fall, you will weight the cinch and you can undo your traxion as it will have no weight on it. A cinch and microtraxion are great for this.

joe - 01/27/2014 6:29:29

Hi ya'll...I've subscribed to your magazine ever since you started publishing it, in fact still own every copy. I've been climbing nearly 40 years, am still avid. I'm also an EXPERT at solo-toproping, have climbed thousands of pitches solo-TR since approx. 1987 (heck, I've soloed El Cap twice...). I've used many different systems, improving over time with gear improvements and extensive studying of rigging. Of course I've also read the web articles Petzl has written that you refer to in your article. The reason I write is because your article recommends using a STATIC ROPE for solo toproping! I strongly feel this to be deeply flawed and terribly dangerous advice. One of the many risks involved in solo-toproping is that no matter how the system is rigged, there is always at least some slack in the system which becomes a bigger hazard as one nears the anchor (less rope to absorb shock). I can envision many scenarios where the climber could be severely injured or killed using a static rope. I was going to leave it at that, but honestly even publishing an article at all about a subject so advanced and fraught with risk as solo-toproping strikes me as borderline irresponsible. That last statement is open to argument; recommending a static rope for this use is not. You should print a retraction, you could kill somebody!!!! No worries, I still love your magazine...

Tom Michael - 01/24/2014 8:24:14

Also, couldn't I use a tibloc as one of the ascenders?

Grenadier - 01/20/2014 1:45:27

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